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By: Joseph P. Vande Griend, PharmD, FCCP, BCPS
- Associate Professor and Assistant Director of Clinical Affairs, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado
- Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado
Muller B symptoms diarrhea topamax 100 mg discount, Touraine B medicine 832 purchase 200 mg topamax, Rennenberg H: Interaction between atmospheric and pedospheric nitrogen nutrition in spruce (Picea abies L medications used to treat bipolar buy discount topamax 200 mg on line. Gessler A symptoms 6dpiui cheap 100 mg topamax, Schneider S, Sengbusch Von D, Weber P, Hanemann U, Huber C, Rothe A, Kreutzer K, Rennenberg H: Field and laboratory experiments on net uptake of nitrate and ammonium by the roots of spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees. Kreuzwieser J, Fьrniss S, Rennenberg H: Impact of waterlogging on the Nmetabolism of flood tolerant and nontolerant tree species. Silla F, Escudero A: Coupling N cycling and N productivity in relation to seasonal stress in Quercus pyrenaica Willd. Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture 3rd Edition Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture 3rd Edition Volume 1. Hall Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom and Geert-Jan De Klerk Plant Research International, Wageningen, the Netherlands A C. Contents Preface Biographical Notes on Contributors 1 2 3 4 Plant Tissue Culture Procedure - Background E. Debergh the Components of Plant Tissue Culture Media I: Macro- and Micro-Nutrients E. George Plant Growth Regulators I: Introduction; Auxins, their Analogues and Inhibitors I. Chen vii ix 1 29 65 115 5 6 7 175 205 227 8 9 10 11 12 13 Index 283 335 355 403 423 465 479 v Preface It is now more than twenty years since the first edition of this work appeared and nearly fifteen since the second. Whilst much of the information in those editions has stood the test of time, inevitably, because of the pace of research, a new edition is clearly timely. This is true, not only because many more species have been the subject of propagation studies, but because the background to the field with which this volume deals has changed almost out of all recognition. In particular, our knowledge of plant development, genetics physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology has expanded exponentially often through work on mutants of Arabidopsis and opened up many new avenues for the plant propagator to explore. Equally, the commercial significance of plant propagation has increased significantly. Equally, fifteen years ago we knew little of the molecular basis of plant development. Because of these factors, it was felt that a different approach was required for this edition. The second edition was researched and written by Edwin George alone but it would now be very difficult for a single author to gain the breadth of expertise necessary to cover all the relevant aspects of this many-faceted subject. Hence, it was decided to adopt a multi-author approach, with chapters written by experts in their fields. These build upon the sound framework of the previous editions (which those with a knowledge of the previous works will recognise). Many sections of the previous work have been retained, but inevitably, apart from up-to-date reference lists, the text has undergone major revision in many areas. Like the previous edition, the current one will appear in two volumes, but coverage has been extended and the order in which subjects are covered has been changed. Therefore, some topics, previously covered in Part 1, will now be discussed in Part 2. The first initiative to begin the new revision of Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture was made by Prof. No work of this size can be accomplished successfully without much goodwill and hard work by the contributors, and to them the editors express their deepest thanks. We also express our sincere thanks to all those who have allowed us to use their material in diagrams and illustrations. Susan Rafferty-McArdle of University College Cork in formatting the text, and to Dr. Edwin George Mike Hall Geert-Jan de Klerk May 2007 vii Biographical Notes on Contributors Chapter 1. George trained as a botanist at Imperial College, London and subsequently gained a PhD, working on breeding and selection of sugar cane at the Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute.
The advantage of adding thiamine was discovered almost simultaneously by Bonner (1937 treatment xanthelasma buy 200 mg topamax with visa, 1938) medications covered by blue cross blue shield buy topamax 200 mg without a prescription, Robbins and Bartley (1937) and White (1937) medicine prices order topamax 100mg visa. Nicotinic acid and pyridoxine appear medications with pseudoephedrine buy discount topamax 200 mg on line, in addition to 115 thiamine, in media published by Bonner (1940), Gautheret (1942) and White (1943b); this was following the findings of Bonner and Devirian (1939) that nicotinic acid improved the growth of isolated roots of tomato, pea and radish; and the papers of Robbins and Schmidt (1939a,b) which indicated that pyridoxine was also required for tomato root culture. These four vitamins; myo-inositol, thiamine, nicotinic acid, and pyridoxine are ingredients of Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium and have been used in varying proportions for the culture of tissues of many plant species (Chapter 3). However, unless there has been research on the requirements of a particular plant tissue or organ, it is not possible to conclude that all the vitamins which have been used in a particular experiment were essential. The requirements of cells for added vitamins vary according to the nature of the plant and the type of culture. Welander (1977) found that Nitsch and Nitsch (1965) vitamins were not necessary, or were even inhibitory to direct shoot formation on petiole explants of Begonia x hiemalis. Experimentation often shows that some vitamins can be omitted from recommended media. The level of thiamine was increased four-fold over that used by Murashige and Skoog (1962), but nicotinic acid, pyridoxine and glycine E. Myo-inositol (also sometimes described as meso-inositol or i-inositol) is the only one of the nine theoretical stereoisomers of inositol which has significant biological importance. Medically it has been classed as a member of the Vitamin B complex and is required for the growth of yeast and many mammalian cells in tissue culture. Rats and mice require it for hair growth and can develop dermatitis when it is not in the diet. Myo-inositol was first shown by Jacquiot (1951) to favour bud formation by elm cambial tissue when supplied at 201000 mg/l. Myoinositol at 100 mg/1 was also used by Morel and Wetmore (1951) in combination with six other vitamins for the culture of callus from the monocotyledon Amorphophallus rivieri (Araceae). Bud initials appeared on some cultures and both roots and buds on others according to the concentration of auxin employed. The vitamin was adopted by both Wood and Braun (1961) and Murashige and Skoog (1962) in combination with thiamine, nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in their preferred media fur the culture of Catharanthus roseus and Nicotiana tabacum respectively. Many other workers have since included it in culture media with favourable results on the rate of callus growth or the induction of morphogenesis. Letham (1966) found that myoinositol interacted with cytokinin to promote cell division in carrot phloem explants. Part of the growth promoting property of coconut milk is due to its myo-inositol content (Pollard et al. This can also promote growth but to a smaller extent than the myo-isomer (Pollard et al. Myo-inositol is a natural constituent of plants and much of it is often incorporated into phosphatidyl-inositol which may be an important factor in the functioning of membranes (Jung et al. The phosphatidylinositol cycle controls various cellular responses in animal cells and yeasts, but evidence of it playing a similar role in plants is only just being accumulated. Enzymes which are thought to be involved in the cycle have been observed to have activities in plants and lithium chloride (which inhibits myo-inositol-1-phosphatase and decreases the cycle) inhibits callus formation in Brassica oleracea (Bagga et al. As the myo-inositol molecule has six hydroxyl units, it can react with up to six acid molecules forming various esters. It appears that inositol phosphates act as second messengers to the primary action of auxin in plants: phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) is one of these. Added to culture media it can promote tissue growth if it can serve as a source of inositol (Watanabe et al. The stimulatory effect of myo-inositol in plant cultures probably arises partly from the participation of the compound in biosynthetic pathways leading to the formation of the pectin and hemicelluloses needed in cell walls (Loewus et al. In the experiments of Staudt (1984) mentioned below, when the P043 content of the medium was raised to 4. Substances identified as components of coconut milk (water) from mature green fruits and market-purchased fruits. Intact shoots are usually able to produce their own requirements, but although many unorganised tissues are able to grow slowly without the vitamin being added to the medium (Murashige, 1974) the addition of a small quantity is frequently found to stimulate cell division. In the opinion of Kaul and Sabharwal (1975) this includes all monocotyledons, the media for which, if they do not contain inositol, need to be complemented with coconut milk, or yeast extract.
In context medications jokes order 200mg topamax visa, it is clear that the Remarks are concerned with the etch mechanism symptoms xeroderma pigmentosum purchase topamax 100 mg otc, not the etch gas medicine misuse definition buy discount topamax 200mg. Samsung argues that the second and third sentences (beginning "In sputter etching treatment juvenile rheumatoid arthritis topamax 200mg fast delivery. Under this interpretation, Jelly used the term "ion etching" to mean reactive ion etching. This interpretation is attractive because it allows paragraph 2 to be read as internally consistent. Paragraph 3 appears to contrast the three references as a group to the use of chemical reactions in a plasma. The parties agree that the statement in paragraph 3 that "in the references the plasma plays no part in the etching, being incidental" does not as a simple matter of fact correctly describe the processes in references A and B. In fact, references A and B disclose reactive ion processes, a process in which the plasma does play an active role in etching the work surface. Thus, paragraph 3 suggests that Jelly did not know that references A and B disclosed processes which were in part chemical. This is evidence that he used the terms "sputter etching" and "ion etching" interchangeably to refer to an exclusively mechanical process. Samsung is correct that Northern Telecom must be held to the representations it made to the Examiner, whether factually correct or not. However, Northern Telecom is correct that the factually erroneous remark in paragraph 3, which perhaps pervades the Remarks as a whole, cannot be interpreted to hold the meaning Samsung wishes to give it - that the Ingrey patent claims only an exclusively chemical etch mechanism. When the first sentence of paragraph 3 is placed in context with the second, which states: "in the present invention the plasma is part of the etching process. If a person skilled in the art was familiar enough with references A and B to be aware of the factual error in the first sentence, that person would have to disregard that sentence as nonsensical. In that case, the first sentence would shed no light on the meaning of the second sentence, which is crucial here. If, on the other hand, a person skilled in the art was not familiar enough with references A and B to be aware of the factual error, that person would interpret paragraph 3 to mean Ingrey was claiming a process where plasma was a part of the etch mechanism. Neither situation lends itself to an interpretation that Ingrey was claiming a process in which plasma was the exclusive etch mechanism. Read as a whole, the third paragraph clearly does not indicate - 1439 - Jump to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R ST UVW XY Z that the claimed invention is exclusively chemical, but only that it is at least partly so. In light of the ambiguities and errors which pervade the Remarks, the court concludes that it cannot be known with certainty precisely what Jelly meant by "sputter etching", "ion etching", and "plasma etching. The Specifications It is axiomatic that limitations that do not appear in the claims cannot be imported from the specification. Thus, the court examines the specifications solely for the light they shed on the meaning of plasma etching as used in the claims. In this case, the court must determine whether the specifications establish that plasma etching as used in Claim 1 precludes the use of a process that also involves ion bombardment. Samsung points to two other portions of the specifications to support its theory that reactive ion etching is outside the scope of the patent. Second, the specifications indicate that high pressure should be used, which suppresses ion bombardment. Northern Telecom interprets the same language as evidence that ion bombardment does in fact occur in the plasma etching process described in the specifications. In a process patent, apparatus distinctions that are not specifically claimed are not controlling in determining the scope of the claims. The specifications show that the Ingrey inventors considered ion bombardment, or at least some excessive level of ion bombardment, to be deleterious. In so showing, the cited lines also indicate that a certain amount of ion bombardment does occur in the embodiment described in the specifications. Thus, the specifications demonstrate, and all the other evidence in the record agrees, that ion bombardment will take place even in the embodiment described in the specifications. While the embodiment set forth in the specifications minimizes ion bombardment, the claims themselves concern only the chemical reactions taking place in a plasma. They do not speak to whether the ion bombardment which will take place is minimized, as in the Ingrey embodiment, or enhanced, as in reactive ion etching as practiced by Samsung. The court discerns no language in the specifications indicating that the claims are limited to a process of chemical reaction in which ion bombardment is limited or reduced below some specified level. Extrinsic Evidence the parties agree that terminology in the field of semiconductor manufacturing was not used consistently or without ambiguity in the late 1970s.
Hayman medicine numbers discount 100 mg topamax amex, Low Pressure medicine rock purchase topamax 100 mg fast delivery, Metastable Growth of Diamond and "Diamondlike" Phases medicine quizlet buy generic topamax 100 mg line, 241 Science 914 medications for gout purchase topamax 100mg with mastercard, 920 (1988). The patentees, having incorporated the article by reference, disclosed to the public that the ratio of sp<3> to sp<2> sites is an important aspect of their invention because the percentage of sp<3> bonded carbon in the nodules is what gives the film its diamond-like characteristics. Likewise, in the Summary of the Invention, the patentees stated that "the basic unit of construction of the nanophase diamond of the present invention is the sp<3>-bonded nodule. The court therefore construes "nodules of carbon bonded predominately in three dimensional sp<3> bonds" to mean "clusters of carbon atoms of rounded or irregular shape wherein approximately 95% or more of the bonds between the carbon atoms in each cluster are three dimensional sp<3> bonds. The parties agree that "nominal" means "approximate or assumed (but not necessarily actual)" and "nominal weight" means "an approximate or assumed (but not necessarily actual) weight. Because this phrase is used consistently throughout the claim, the Court gives it the same construction here. Summary Accordingly, the Court concludes that the phrase "a nominal addition amount of the catalyst (having a nominal weight)" means "an approximate or assumed amount of catalyst added to raise the concentration of the catalyst from the previously established lower concentration boundary (but not necessarily the minimum boundary) of a range of catalyst concentrations (which may be expressed as a weight percentage) to the previously established upper concentration boundary (but not necessarily the minimum boundary) of a range of catalyst concentrations (which may be expressed as a weight percentage) (having an approximate or assumed but not necessarily actual weight). Defendant first points out that it cannot be disputed that its products contain water, and thus the products are not literally "water free" or without water. In addition, defendant points out that its products, at the very least, contain water in a greater quantity than that which could reasonably be considered to be a "trace amount of water. Referring to the scientific definition of "trace element," defendant explains that because a measurement of one percent water is more than one hundred times greater (in scientific measurement) than "a trace amount of water," there can be no literal - 1292 - Jump to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R ST UVW XY Z infringement. From that observation, defendant argues that "by defining the amount of bicarbonate salt in terms of its reaction when the composition is brought into contact with water, it is clear that water is not part of the claimed composition. A non-aqueous tooth paste or gel composition comprising a peroxide selected from one or more members of the group consisting of urea peroxide, hydrogen peroxide, magnesium peroxide, calcium peroxide, lithium peroxide, sodium percarbonate, and ammonium persulfate; a bicarbonate salt; a peroxide stabilizer; and a hydrophilic, non-aqueous vehicle which is water dispersible, water emulsifiable or water soluble; wherein said bicarbonate is present in an amount effective to provide a neutral or basic pH when the composition is contacted with water; said peroxide stabilizer comprising a material selected from one or more members of the group consisting of a dessicating agent, a sequestering agent, colloidal particles, free radical preventatives, inorganic hardness salts, acidulating agents, and a coating on at least one of said peroxide and said bicarbonate salt that either readily dissolves, disperses or emulsities in water; and wherein said peroxide, stabilizer and vehicle are present in amounts effective so as to inhibit decomposition of said peroxide during storage of said composition in a closed container, but so as to allow release of sufficient oxygen when the composition is contacted with water in the mouth to inhibit the motility of oral bacteria. A dependent claim refers back to one earlier claim and is considered to include all of its own limitations as well as those of the referenced claim. Defendant has raised an additional argument concerning another limitation found in claims 9, 16 and 17, separate and apart from its argument regarding the proper meaning of the "non-aqueous" limitation. We will consider those arguments infra - 1293 - Jump to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R ST UVW XY Z at Section A. The "transitional phrase" of the claim is the introductory clause between the preamble and the limitations of a claim, and materially affects the scope of protection afforded by the claim. The "body" of the claim, which is all the language coming after the transitional phrase, states, as a series of phrases, the structural elements which make up and form the nucleus of the invention. The Federal Circuit has recently reaffirmed the principle that under certain circumstances, language found in the preamble takes on increased significance: [A] claim preamble has the import that the claim as a whole suggests for it. If the claim preamble, when read in the context of the entire claim, recites limitations of the claim, or, if the claim preamble is necessary to give life, meaning and vitality to the claim, then the claim preamble should be construed as if in the balance of the claim. Here, the preamble which commences with the statement "A non-aqueous toothpaste or gel composition" is "necessary to give life, meaning and vitality" to claim 1 and the dependent claims. Indeed, the body of claim 1 refers to the "composition" three times without defining its meaning. An understanding of that term can only be gleaned from the preamble which states that the composition is "a non-aqueous toothpaste or gel. Thus we must "construe the preamble and the remainder of the claim as one unified and internally consistent recitation of the claimed invention. What this means with respect to claims 1, 5, 6, 8 and 9 is that the preamble containing the phrase "a non-aqueous tooth paste or gel composition" must be considered a limitation. Of course, because claim 21 does not contain this phrase as part of its preamble, it may not be so considered. However, claim 21 does include its own limitation which requires a "non-aqueous" vehicle, and thus our construction of the term "non-aqueous" is pertinent to the construction of that claim. In addition, defendant recognizes that the term "non-aqueous" could also be construed to mean that the composition contains only "a trace of water. This is because the accused products contain at minimum one percent water, which is an amount greater than a "trace" of water as that term is defined scientifically. Thus under either construction, defendant argues, it is entitled to summary judgment of non-infringement.
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