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At conferences or conference sessions I have attended for practicing consumer researchers antibiotic resistance global statistics generic 3 mg stromectol visa, video excerpts are exceedingly common parts of session presentations bacteria virus stromectol 3 mg mastercard. This is not to virus 7 characteristics of life purchase stromectol 3 mg say that these integrations are necessarily the models we should follow antibiotics that start with r generic stromectol 3mg without prescription. Yet it still seems that we, as researchers, (re)presenters and consumers of ethnographic research, need to gain a deeper appreciation of the epistemological, cultural and practical intricacies involved in moving imagery. Just as scholars have made us aware of ways written ethnographic accounts are created documents with attention to word choice, inclusion, elisions, rhetoric and so on (in much the same way as any novel, poem or 382 Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing chapter in this volume does), so we need to do for video. We need to be aware of these as created documents and we need to appreciate their semiotic grammars. We also need to be able to incorporate them into our work for the value they hold as vehicles of phenomenological understanding. As viewers and consumers of ethnographic research, we need to appreciate the implicit cultural assumptions and practices that we are bringing to bear. It is not that I know how this should all be accomplished and there is the jarringly uncomfortable feeling that, as the intertwined technological, cultural and theoretical terrain shifts, how we should and how we believe we should (re)present our data will also shift. It is probably utopian to think that we will rely on our communications colleagues to help us out in academic or applied circles but I do believe this, and what I hope to have accomplished in this chapter is the reminder of the need to look at, recognize and question the cultural and epistemological assumptions that reside within our (re)presentation choices, even when, or especially when, we are entertained. Clifford, James and George Marcus (eds) (1986), Writing Culture, Berkeley: University of California Press. Corbin, Alain (1988), the Foul and the Fragrant, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Crawford, Peter and Sigurjon Hafsteinsson (eds) (1996), the Constructions of the Viewer, Hшjbjerg, Denmark: Intervention Press. Pine, Joseph (1999), the Experience Economy, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Stoller, Paul (1997), Sensuous Scholarship, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Lowrey and Suraj Commuri Imagine if researchers interested in studying consumption- and marketing-related phenomena could do so at only one point in time. Simply put, marketing researchers must be able to study phenomena both over time (during extended, continuous periods so the lifeworlds of consumers, practitioners and/or marketing organizations can be understood) and across time (at different points in time, even those occurring before a study begins). Focusing on the temporal aspects of consumption and marketing enables researchers to make inductively-based inferences about the ways people begin, maintain and end relationships with goods, services, retailers, service providers and other foci of interest and importantly, how these relationships change over time. In this chapter we examine the longitudinal and retrospective qualitative techniques that marketing researchers can use when they wish to generate thick descriptions of human behavior. We begin by defining and comparing these research approaches, and describe their potential contributions and limitations. We then examine how studies of marketing-related phenomena have incorporated components of longitudinal qualitative research, and how they have used (or can use) retrospective marketing techniques. Longitudinal versus retrospective approaches Definition(s) of longitudinal research Achieving consensus with regard to what longitudinal qualitative research truly entails is probably elusive, because even in disciplines such as anthropology, sociology and education, where it is a mainstay, the criteria as to what makes a research project longitudinal are often vague. Although all disciplines imply that longitudinal research occurs over a span of time, Saldaсa (2003) notes that he could find no agreement as to the minimum span required for a field immersion to be considered longitudinal. One reason for such a disparate range is that some ethnographers advocate allowing the research design to evolve to meet the demands of the research questions and context being explored. Events that cannot be described because they have yet to emerge certainly cannot be tied to a particular date. In contrast, a general definition of retrospective research is less problematic, because this method does not require debate over a criterion of prolonged field immersion. Specifically, retrospective research is that which enables the researcher to capture timeinfused primary data, by allowing and encouraging participants to tap into one or multiple earlier time periods in their lives post hoc. Because scholars do not want to be limited to the retrospective perspectives available only through secondary data sources such as oral histories, diaries, transaction histories, company data or web-logs, they use a variety of creative retrospective techniques that involve informants (some of which are detailed later in this chapter). Consequently, they can acquire and interpret primary recollections and opinions about past events, to secure perspectives of how these informants believe key events shaped their lives or, conversely, how these informants believed they or others shaped key events. Comparison of longitudinal and retrospective methods Whether one adopts a longitudinal or retrospective approach, both hold the belief that time is ontologically relevant and epistemologically accessible. But thereafter, these two approaches substantively diverge, especially with regard to the conceptualizations of time they embrace and explore.
Families teach their children ways of thinking and feeling about their identities antimicrobial washcloths purchase stromectol 3 mg mastercard. Through the vehicles of ethnic folklore antibiotic resistance experts stromectol 3 mg with amex, history and family episodes virus in the heart safe 3mg stromectol, family myths tell about the genealogy and the tradition of which the child is a part antibiotic walking pneumonia purchase stromectol 3mg mastercard. They often use animals as anthropomorphic vehicles to carry their morals and specific injunctions to persevere, tell the truth, be brave, obey your parents, be kind and loving, be smart, oppose evil, overcome adversity, or even to be rebellious and break the rules. Attending to fiction serves the process of personality development, of learning more about people and how to cope with situations in life. These tales are fantasies, decorated and metaphorical, which means they are symbolic vehicles for representing truths. They carry lessons that enable people to identify with or reject the persons, the animals, the events and the import of the stories, and thereby better to know the truth of themselves. Some stories are regarded as true by definition, because they are called true stories and ordinarily accepted as that: facts, histories, chronicles, annals, documentaries, biographies, non-fiction and the provisional assertions of truth called science. Respondents said the Holocaust was true, horrific and important to remember so as not to be repeated. The truth of the cosmos is hard to understand, seeming miraculous, ineffable and composed of grand assertions (in the beginning was the Word, e = mc2, the big bang, black holes, the Origin of Species) that are accepted as either scientific truths or non-provable articles of faith. They provide the most comprehensive and most profound explanations of life and death. When consumers are strong believers, they want to evangelize, that is, to be angels broadcasting the good news. But about the truth of stories there are also dispute, deniers, controversy, critics, heretics and journal reviewers. Often there are social struggles about access to consuming these opportunities, including censorship attempts when school libraries are asked not to circulate Huckleberry Finn or Catcher in the Rye and disagreement about the support of schools where preferred foundation stories are taught. Elaboration of the Divol/Testard scenario showed the seeds of such conflicts in the apperceptions of adamant or violent responses. Nevertheless the study did not elicit much negativism toward any stories, because it asked about truth and belief but did not explore falsehood and disbelief. To provide a fuller picture, further study is needed that samples segments of the population who are more aggressive and vehement, and willing to admit it. The importance of foundation stories and their significance to consumers are highlighted by the events of 11 September 2001, and since. A consequence is much discussion in the media about the character of religious belief, especially in Islam, highlighting the tension between belief in a religious truth and tolerance for alternative beliefs. Commentators, politicians and clergy debate the nature of the conflicts that have grown out of the stories told in the 462 Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing Hebrew Bible, the Christian Bible and the Quran, and the divergent ways mainstream and militant believers interpret these stories and act upon them. It seems almost as if there is something inherent in religious monotheism that lends itself to. Friedman (2001) expresses surprise that such conditions are not worse in the United States. Half the sample shows skepticism about the truth of non-secular foundation stories. In addition, the subjects are virtually unanimous in expressing a transcendent respect for diversity of individual belief systems and the alternative narratives these represent. As a priest, he also regrets that `Most popular Christian literature, for example, is superficial as compared with the great popular writings of saints and theologians of the past. The line between religious writing and the pop psychology is increasingly difficult to detect. Still, along with these peaceful protestations, half the sample claim to be faithful or devout in the intensity of their belief in their foundation stories and they really would like to have others share in their belief. They also tend to express adamancy about their true tales and resolve to defend the values propounded by these stories, as they project in their stories about Divol and Testard. Such adherence and determination is what generally underlies the potential for struggle (jihad) and litigation. Your responses will be the consumption of stories 463 completely confidential and not be individually identified with you in any way.
Interferon migrates out of dying cells and then helps protect other cells by "interfering" with attempts by the virus to can antibiotics for acne cause weight gain proven 3mg stromectol penetrate their walls virus 64 order stromectol 3mg amex. He also admitted there was no evidence to antimicrobial essential oil recipe 3mg stromectol mastercard support this hypothesis in 1970 antibiotic mastitis buy 3 mg stromectol mastercard, but claimed than an experiment by Schwerdt and Schwerdt4° does offer support. The "control" cultures had no vitamin C added, while the test dishes contained vitamin C plus glutathione, a vitamin C stabilizer. After about 48 hours, there was considerably less viral reproduction in the vitamin C dish than in the control dish. The authors suggest that the presence of vitamin C increased the amount of interferon released from the infected cells. Siegel41 demonstrated in mice that vitamin C increased interferon production during stimulation with infective agents. Also, mouse cells in tissue culture, stimulated with simulated viral nucleic acid as the attacker, produced more interferon in the presence than in the absence of vitamin C. In 1975, Geber and co-workers42 injected mice with vitamin C and later stimulated their white blood cells with a virus-like chemical. The vitamin C mice produced more interferon in their white cells than did the control mice. However, injection of mice with an aspirin-like drug produced an even greater production of interferon. Obviously, a great deal more work has to be done to clarify the relationship between vitamin C and interferon. Antihistamine Effect of Vitamin C Histamine in varying amounts is almost always released in the tissues of the respiratory tract by an allergic-type response to the stress of common cold infections. Perhaps the first clue that animals and humans might use vitamin C to combat stress that involves histamine release came in 1940 from the research team led by the co-discoverer of vitamin C, Professor Charles Glen King of Columbia University. His group43 showed that stressing rats with certain drugs stimulated their bodies to synthesize extra vitamin C. Later, evidence was presented to support the belief that animals, such as the rat, who can make their own supply of vitamin C, react to histamine by producing extra vitamin C. Long44 provided further evidence that vitamin C plays a part in the prevention or moderation of allergy reactions involving histamine in man and animals. In 1974, two other research teams46 ·47 found that rats given vitamin C along with histamine-releasing drugs had decreased amounts of histamine in their urine. Rats and guinea pigs were stressed, some with and some without vitamin C supplements, by a variety of stressing challenges. The stressing conditions included injections with vaccines, toxoids, and certain physical stresses. In all cases, large doses of vitamin C reduced the stress symptoms and reduced the amount of histamine in the urine. These experiments support the idea that vitamin C acts somewhat like an antihistamine in reducing the symptoms of a cold. If so, should it be done daily or only at the first sign of a cold or other infection? Thomas Chalmers5 concluded in 1975: "I, who have colds as often and as severe as those of any man, do not consider the very minor potential benefit that might result from taking vitamin C three times a day for life worth either the effort or the risk, no matter how slight the latter might be. Supplementation with larger amounts of vitamin C has not been shown to be more effective, and it may cause diarrhea or have other adverse effects. Some doctors believe that under these circumstances, a supplement of 250 mg-but never more than 500 mg per day for a few days-may aid in recovery. Jarvis, Professor of Health Education at Loma Linda University and a noted authority on quackery, points out that since ancient times, humans have sought at least four different "magic potions"-the love potion, the fountain of youth, the cure-all and the athletic superpill. Megadoses of vitamin E are being recommended by vitamin hucksters and ill-informed physicians for the treatment of acne, atherosclerosis, cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, sexual frigidity, infertility, habitual abortion, high blood cholesterol, muscular dystrophy, peptic ulcer, rheumatic fever, and blood clots. Vitamin E is being claimed to increase stamina, prolong life and protect against the effects of atmospheric pollution. It is also being added to after-shave lotions, soaps, underarm deodorants and so-called skin conditioners! Albert Vogelsang, published several reports of their vitamin E treatments between 1946 and 1970 (see Chapter 9). Wilfrid Shute also co-authored a book in 1969 recommending 200 to 600 units dai1y and claiming favorable results with hundreds of heart patients. Olson, 1 Robert Hodges 2 ·3 and Terence Anderson, 4 ·5 found no benefit from vitamin E therapy for angina pectoris in well-designed studies published between 1946 and 1972.
Some piano pieces in A major: Mozart: Piano concertos K 414 and K 488 Mozart: Sonata K 331 Beethoven: Sonatas opus 23 no antibiotics for staph acne buy stromectol 3 mg otc. The natural minor scale of A minor consists of the notes A antibiotics for sinus infection or not discount stromectol 3 mg online, B antibiotics for acne and weight gain cheap stromectol 3mg without prescription, C antibacterial eye drops cheap stromectol 3 mg with mastercard, D, E, F, G and A. The scale of B flat major has the following notes: B flat, C, D, E flat, F, G, A and B flat. The natural scale of A sharp minor consists of the following notes: A sharp, B sharp [C], C sharp, D sharp, E sharp [F], F sharp, G sharp, and A sharp. Its parallel major is A sharp major which is usually replaced by B flat major because A sharp major, which would have ten sharps, is not normally used. The overall harmonic context is an extended theme in B major which briefly modulates to A sharp major. The natural minor scale of B flat minor consists of the notes B flat, C, D flat, E flat, F, G flat, A flat and B flat. Chopin regarded C major as the most difficult scale to play with complete evenness and he tended to give it last to his pupils. He recognised B major as the easiest scale to play on the piano because the position of the black and white notes best fitted the natural position of the fingers and so he often had his pupils start with this scale. In the treble clef putting the sharp for A on its expected position relative to the sharp for G would require a ledger line. In the bass clef it would be possible to do this but in piano music this would result in a disuniformity that might throw off sight reading. Accordingly, the B major key signature is practically the same in the bass clef as it is in the treble clef. Its tonic minor is C flat minor which is usually replaced by B minor (because C flat minor, which would have ten flats, is not 154 normally used). The scale of C flat major has the following notes: C flat [B], D flat, E flat, F flat [E], G flat, A flat, B flat and C flat [B]. C flat major is the home key of the harp, with all its pedals in the top position, and is considered the most resonant key for the harp. The natural minor scale of B minor consists of the notes B, C sharp, D, E, F sharp, G, A and B. It is a common key used in rock, folk, country and other guitaristic styles because the standard tuning of a guitar causes all the open strings to be scale degrees of B minor. Its tonal range covers the full spectrum of any instrument of the orchestra from below the lowest note of the double bassoon to above the top note of the piccolo. It has the ability to produce melody and accompaniment at the same time, and it has a wide dynamic range. It is also the largest instrument, apart from the pipe organ, the most versatile and one of the most interesting. He settled in Hanover as a teacher and composer and from there he went to Weimar in 1852 where he studied with Franz Liszt (1811-1886) at the Altenburg. Among his fellow pupils were Hans von Bьlow (1830-1894) and William Mason (1829-1908). Liszt completed his monumental Sonata in B minor in February 1853 and Klindworth was his first pupil to play the Sonata, which was then in manuscript. Klindworth heard Liszt himself play his Sonata on 7 May 1853 and on 15 June 1853 and probably in between on 4 June 1853. Klindworth moved the next year to London and subsequently on 5 April 1855 he played the Sonata for Wagner and became on friendly terms with him. Klindworth remained in London for fourteen years, studying, teaching and occasionally appearing in public. He moved to Moscow in 1868 to take up the position of professor of piano at the Moscow Conservatorium where he taught until 1884. On his return to Germany he became a conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic in 1882, in association with Joachim and Bullner.
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